During these eight centuries, the rules of Andalusia was characterized by six historical periods:
In the era of the governors, Abdel Rahman al-Ghafqi continued to conquer Europe until he arrived to Paris, where he was stopped by the Crusader alliance, and defeated in the battle of the Court of Martyrs.
The Umayyad state of Andalusia is one of the most beautiful and longest of all times, and was founded by Abdul Rahman al-Dakhil, known as Saqr Quraish. He carried out many military actions until he consolidated his rule in Cordoba and then began to control the cities of Andalusia. He was succeeded by nine rulers, the last of which was Hisham II, whose state was overthrown in 422/1031, to begin the era of the Kings of Sects.
Henceforth, Andalusia was divided among the princes, each of them built a small state, and established a ruling family of his relatives. The number of these states reached more than twenty, that were mostly characterized by disorder, chaos and strife, which was an opportunity to strengthen the status of the Spanish Christians, and the situation was exacerbated by the fall of Toledo in the hands of Christians in 478/1085.
As a result, al-Muatamid Ibn Abbad, the emir of the state of Beni Abad in Seville, which was the largest state among the Kings of Sects, appealed to the State of Almoravids in Maghrib, and agreed with Yusuf Ibn Tashefin to confront the Christians, and indeed the Muslims were able to achieve a major military victory over the Christians in the battle of Sagrajas in 479/1086.
Map of Andalusia in the Umayyad Period. Some city names have been modernized.
Almoravids then took over the rule of Andalusia, establishing a mujahedeen state that was able to save the country from falling for a long time until it weakened and collapsed, to be inherited by Almohads, who continued to protect Andalusia by defeating the Christians in the Ark battle in 591/1195. However, the military operations continued between them until Almohads received a severe blow to be defeated in the battle of Uqab in 609/1212. This defeat was one of the reasons for the end of the Islamic presence in all of Andalusia. It was followed by the falling of Almeria, Malaqa, Valencia, and Ashbona, and the rule of the Muslims became confined to Granada, on which the sons of al-Ahmar ruled for nearly two and a half centuries until it collapsed, and with its fall, Andalusia was permanently lost in 897/1492.
Here we will shed more light on the period before the birth of The Greatest Shaykh Muhyiddin Ibn al-Arabi and the period in which he lived in Andalusia, and we will talk about the other countries, where he passed and lived, in the next chapters when they are mentioned.