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2.0 - The TWILIGHT: Diffusion of the Akbarian School

These are the abodes, and the heart transcending
through them by virtue of predestination.
The orbs revolved around with it in their expanse
and the universe is in cycles in the loops.
Whenever you enter one abode
the lights crave to it with desire.
To flood it in the twilight of night
until the soldiers of daybreak might roll up.
To depart away from the earth
heading to the west of mysteries.
Irdis (Enoch), the Most High, then embarks his revelation
in the footsteps of those heavy soldiers
His light is hidden away from the viewer
just as the sun hides away the effect of moons
The Stratosphere with the Ether are now in control
of coldness and heat in phases

Ibn al-Arabi (Grand Diwan, p. 43) ... See the comments on this poem in section [ref:commentsch22] at the end of this chapter.

In spite of the presence of some critics, deniers, and detractors, the centuries were full of many sincere and loving supporters who adored the wisdom of the Greatest Shaykh and tasted some of his esoteric knowledge. Many of the prominent scholars dedicated themselves to defending him by clarifying the truth of his words and filtering the deviated concepts attributed to him, either mistakenly or intentionally, by the critics. They mostly did that by explaining some of his many controversial books, especially the Bezels of Wisdom, which alone has more than two hundred commentaries, most of which are still unedited manuscripts.

Just as it sprung from the West and slowly spread to the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant, through Northern Africa and Egypt, his teachings were well received, with great honor and respect, by the people in Turkey and Asia Minor, as well as India, and particularly by the Sufis, philosophers and theologians, who transformed his works and elaborately explained his profound conceptions. For example, Fusus al-Hikam and some other important works are still being taught in some religious institutions and mystic assemblies in some of these countries.

Therefore, in addition to the renowned Shaykhs, of most Sufi Orders, such as the Naqshbandiyyah, Qadiriyyah, Shadhiliyyah, Alawiyyah, Bektashiyyah, Chishtiyyah, Kubrawiyyah, Mawlawiyyah, Senussiyyah, Suhrawardiyyah and Tijaniyyah, fanned in various countries of Asia, Africa, and more recently in Europe and the Americas, as we shall see further in chapter 3.0 below, all of them had noticeable influence in the diffusion and transmission of the teachings of Shaykh Muhyiddin Ibn al-Arabi, either directly or indirectly, and some of them played noticeable roles in propagating his doctrines through their own writings or their later disciples.

We will mention here some of the scholars whose names have emerged in this field, arranged by the centuries following Sheikh Muhyiddin Ibn al-Arabi.

The following list is arranged by the centuries that followed his passing away, starting from the seventh to the current fifteenth century AH, corresponding to the thirteenth to the current twenty first century AD. We should notice, however, that this selection is far from comprehensive, and that the order is approximated according to their date of death, which might also be not certain or unknown.

2.1- In the Seventh/Thirteenth Century

2.2- In the Eighth/Fourteenth Century

2.3- In the Ninth/Fifteenth Century

2.4- In the Tenth/Sixteenth Century

2.5- In the Eleventh/Seventeenth Century

2.6- In the Twelfth/Eighteenth Century

2.7- In the Thirteenth/Nineteenth Century

2.8- In the Fourteenth/Twentieth Century

2.9- In the Fifteenth/Twenty First Century

2.10- Comments on the Opening Poem

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