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1.2 - Muslim Conquests and the Journey to the West

After Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, confronted the anti-zakat insurgents, and fought the apostates and conquered them, Islam spread throughout the Arabian Peninsula, and the Muslim State became stronger. The Caliph directed the forces to jihad on two fronts: the Iraqi Front led by Khalid Ibn al-Waleed, and the Levant Front led by Abu Obeida Ibn al-Jarrah. In Iraq, the southern part of it was opened, then Khalid Ibn al-Waleed was ordered to go to Damascus, leading part of the Iraqi Army to support Abu Obeida. Damascus was opened after the famous Yarmouk battle in 13 AH / 634 AD, just before the first Caliph Abu Bakr passed away.

The conquests continued with the succession of the second Caliph, Omar Ibn al-Khattab (13-23 AH / 634-644 AD), where Muslims began to spread in parts of the northern lands, and then east and west. Moawiya opened the Roman Strip, until he reached Amuriyah, as well as Armenia and Azerbaijan. Egypt was also opened by Amr Ibn El-Aas, and the Muslims started to extend to the Libyan port of Tripoli and Barqa, while in the east they quickly crossed the borders of Iran and opened the countries of Khorasan, Ahwaz, Persia, spreading as far south as Makran on the borders of Sindh and eastward to Afghanistan.

In the reign of Othman (23-35 AH / 644-656 AD), the third Caliph, the Islamic State extended its control over these vast areas and expanded further towards Africa under the leadership of Abdullah Ibn Saad Ibn Abi Serrah, who was appointed by Othman after he isolated Amr Ibn al-Aas. The Muslims defeated the Byzantine army in Tunisia, and Sufetula was captured as their capital.

In the reign of Ali Ibn Abu-Talib, may Allah honor his face, the conquests were stopped because of the sedition that erupted during his reign and ended with his killing, may Allah bless him. The then caliphate moved to the Umayyad, lasting ninety one years and nine months, during which the Islamic state stretched from the Atlantic Sea westward to the border of China in the east.

1.2.1- The Conquest of Hispania

1.2.2- Periods of Islamic Rule in Andalusia





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